English iN a fuN waY~~

VeRb ~ pArT 1


– A verb expresses action or being.

– An action verb tells what the subject of the sentence does.
Ex: Everyone runs when the coach blows her whistle.
I eat dinner at six o’clock.

– A linking verb does not show action, but instead shows state-of-being.
Ex: We were at the store for an hour.
You are in sixth grade.



a) A lexical verb is the main verb of the sentence. All verbs include a lexical verb.

b) A lexical verb does not require an auxiliary verb, but an auxiliary verb exists only to help a lexical verb. It cannot exist alone.

[In the following examples, the auxiliary verb is italicize and the lexical verb is bold.]

~ Every Friday this year, Gloria has taken her dog to obedience training.
{Gloria’s action, TAKEN, is the lexical verb and HAS is auxiliary.}

~ Taking any chance to avoid work, Carton will pretend to be asleep.
{ Carlton’s action, which will occur in the future, is PRETEND. PRETEND is the lexical verb and WILL is the auxiliary verb. Do not be tricked by TAKING. It is not a verb. It is a participle.}


Primary auxiliary verbs are derived from the verbs BE, HAVE, and DO.

Primary auxiliary verbs which are derived from the verb BE are am, is, are, were and was.
-I am a teacher.
-He was very polite.
-She is my friend.
-They are students.

Primary auxiliary verbs which are derived from the verb HAVE are have, had and has.

-They have five houses.
-He has two children.
-She had ten cars.

Primary auxiliary verbs which are derived from the verb DO are do, does and did.

-I do drive the car.
-He did the assignment perfectly.
-He does the examination very well.


We do not use modal verbs alone.

1. A modal verb goes before another verb (except in short answers):

a) You must go b) Leyla can dance c) It might snow

The second verb is always in the infinitive form, without any past tense and without any -ing, -s or -ed ending. We cannot say xhe must workedx, xshe must washingx or xshe must dancesx

2. Modal verbs has no -ing, -s or -ed endings
Unlike other verbs, modal verbs never change their form. We cannot say xyou are musting gox or “Emmet cans dancex

3. Modal verbs have adifferent negative form
We cannot make negatives with don’t, doesn’t or didn’t. To make a negative, put not or n’t after the modal verb:
Waalique must not go (formal) or Waalique musn’t go (informal)
With can, we join not to make one word : cannot

4. Modal verbs have a different question form
We cannot make questions with do, does or did.
To make a question, change the word order:
Azam must go ———-> Must Azam go?
Fida can dance———-> Can Fida dance?

5. Most modal verbs have no past tense
Except for can (past tense could) and will (past tense would), modal verbs do not have a past tense.


We use the present tense:

1. For repeated or regular actions in the present time period.
I take the train to the office.
The train to Berlin leaves every hour.
John sleeps eight hours every night during the week.

2. For facts.
The President of The USA lives in The White House.
A dog has four legs.
We come from Switzerland.

3. For habits.
I get up early every day.
Carol brushes her teeth twice a day.
They travel to their country house every weekend.

4. For things that are always / generally true.
It rains a lot in winter.
The Queen of England lives in Buckingham Palace.
They speak English at work.


The present continuous is used for:

1. actions happening at the moment of speaking:

I’m sitting in front of the computer.
The phone’s ringing.
I’m trying to think of another example to put here.

2. actions happening around the moment of speaking:

I’m learning French (not at this moment, but I’ve got a class tomorrow).
I’m doing a lot of revision for my exams (but not right now).
I’m seeing a lot of my brother at the moment (but he’s not here now).

3. descriptions:

People are sitting on the café terrace.
The traffic is making a lot of noise.
She’s wearing a red dress.

4. temporary situations:

I’m staying with my grandparents while my parents are away.
My brother is using the metro because his car is being repaired.
I’m sleeping in the spare room because I’m decorating my bedroom.

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Comments on: "VeRb ~ pArT 1" (2)

  1. Hello Jess! I love your work here! You explained it so well and it is so colourful. I love the fact that you have the chart that lists out everything clearly regarding the modal verbs 🙂 Yours is definitely one of my favourite blogs!

  2. Hi,
    I love the way you organize your work in sections. It helps one understand the concept easily. Ability to express something you know in technical words is something i admire.

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