1. Nouns we can count.
2. Countable nouns can be singular or plural.
3. When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word like a / an / the / my / this with it.
4. When a countable noun is plural, we can use it alone.
5. We can use some / any / a few / many with countable nouns.
Indefinite article a/an with countable nouns:
~ A dog is an animal.
– Singular nouns:
~ I want an orange. (not I want orange.)
~ Where is my bottle? (not Where is bottle?)
– Plural nouns:
~ I like oranges.
~ Bottles can break.
– Some / any / a few / many with countable nouns:
~ I’ve got some dollars.
~ Have you got any pens?
~ I’ve got a few dollars.
~ I haven’t got many pens.
1. Nouns we cannot count. We only use singular verbs with uncountable nouns.
2. Determiners used with these nouns are a lot of, a little, some, plenty, any.
– Have no plural. The verb form is singular and we use some:
~There is some milk on the floor.
– In questions, we can use any or how much:
~ Is there any sugar?
~ How much wine is there?
– A lot of can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns:
~ There are a lot of apples on the trees.
~ There is a lot of snow on the road.
– We use not many with countable nouns and not much with uncountable nouns.
~ There’s a lot of drinks but there isn’t much food.
~ There are a lot of carrots but there aren’t many potatoes.
a) The insect, a cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table.
b) During the dinner conversation, Clifford, the messiest eater at the table, spewed mashed potatoes like an eruption volcano.
We use personal pronouns in place of the person or people that we are talking about. My name is Josef but when I am talking about myself I almost always use “I” or “me”, not “Josef”. When I am talking direct to you, I almost always use “you”, not your name. When I am talking about another person, say John, I may start with “John” but then use “he” or “him”. And so on…
1st ~ person or the self (I, me, we)
2nd ~ person or the person spoken to (you)
3rd ~ person or the person spoken about (he, she, him, her, they, them).
Rules of nouns as adjectives
The “noun as adjective” will always come first, the second noun is the subject matter.
a) A lighthouse is a beacon.
b) A house light is any lighting unit in the house.
I walked home.
The word home is a noun, but in this application it functions as an adverb that defines where I walked.