English iN a fuN waY~~

M0DaL VeRBs :)


1. CAN and COULD
2. MAY and MIGHT


We use can:

a) to talk about possibility and ability;
EXAMPLE: I can ride a horse.
EXAMPLE: He can speak three languages.

b) to make requests or give orders;
EXAMPLE: Can you buy me a can of beer?
EXAMPLE: Can you complete now what you are doing?

We use could:

a) as the past tense of can.
EXAMPLE: Jane said she could get the tickets for us.

b) when we wish to be very polite.
EXAMPLE: Could I go now, please?

c) to show what was possible in the past.
EXAMPLE: He could cycle when he was four years old.


We use may or might to:

a) make a suggestion or an assumption.
EXAMPLE: Everyone is looking for George. He may/might be in the toilet.

b) indicate that something is a possibility.
EXAMPLE: What we are told may/might be true.

c) possibly take the place of could.
EXAMPLE: That man over there looks like Mike. He could/may/might be Mike.


We use will and would :

a) for polite questions.
EXAMPLE: Will/would you phone me later?

b) for invitations

EXAMPLE: Will/would join us for a drink?

c) for offering something
EXAMPLE: Would/wouldn’t you like a coffee or tea?

d) for asking someone to do something
EXAMPLE: Will/would you please top grumbling about the weather?


a) We usually use had better to give advice or warning or make a suggestion about something bad that is likely to happen.
EXAMPLE: You are coughing loudly. You had better see a doctor.
EXAMPLE: I am overeating. I had better go on a diet.
EXAMPLE: We think she had better not befriend him. He is a drug addict.


:: A preposition is a part of speech.



:: A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence.
:: The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition.

Prepositions are simple words but they are not as easy to use as they appear to be. If used wrongly, they become adverbs and conjunctions and convey different meanings as the following examples show:

a) It was a kite that we looked above us. (adverb)
b) I noticed an air plane above the cloud. (preposition)
c) They waited outside the cinema for him. (adverb)
d) The sheep are outside the fence. (preposition)
e) We entered after her. (adverb)
f) He arrived after we had left. (conjunction)
g) I go jogging every day after work. (preposition)


~ A phrasal verb is a verb that is combined with a preposition (at, on, over, etc.) or adverb (back, down, off, etc.), and together has its own special meaning.
Example :
Get away means escape
~ Speak up means speak louder

2. Phrasal Verbs (Separable)

:: The nouns come between the verbs and the participles, and the noun objects come after the participles of the phrasal verbs.

Examples :

~ His part-time office job is to put the files away. (The noun files is between verb put and the participle away.)

~ They called off the match due to bad weather. (Noun object match comes after the participle off.)

Phrasal Verbs (Non-Separable)

Examples :

~ He will look after my dog while I am away.
(INCORRECT: He will look my dog after while I am away.)

~ They called on her when she was hospitalized.
(call on = pay a brief visit. INCORRECT: … called her on…)

Phrasal Verbs without an Object

::Some phrasal verbs do not take on an object.

Examples :

~ They told him to hurry up.
~ We decided that we should get together more regularly.
~ After what happened, he promised to speak up.

Phrasal Verbs with an Object

Many phrasal verbs take an object.


~ He turns off the light whenever he leaves the room.
~ She puts her glasses on each time she goes out.
~ They looked through the drawer but couldn’t find it.

:: can become Adjectives by adding -ed or -ing

Examples –
~ Amaze
~ Captivate
~ Confuse
~ Shock
~ Intrigue
~ Disappoint


18 Sin título-4

Examples :
a) I love that really big old green antique car that is always parked at the end of the street. [quality – size – age – color – qualifier]
b) My sister has a beautiful big white bulldog. [quality – size – color]
c) A wonderful old Italian clock. [opinion – age – origin]
d) A big square blue box. [size – shape – color]
e) A disgusting pink plastic ornament. [opinion – color – material]
f) Some new slim French trousers. [age – shape – origin]
g) My small new red sleeping bag. [size – age – color – purpose]
h) I bought a pair of black leather shoes. [color – material]


1. I bought a pair of _____ shoes.
a) black leather
b) leather black

2. It was a ____ car.
a) red fast
b) fast red

3. It’s a ____ building.
a) big round
b) round big

4. I bought ____ knife.
a) a Swiss army
b) an army Swiss

5. It’s ____ film.
a) a beautiful old
b) an old beautiful

6. He’s ____ man.
a)an unfriendly rich
b)a rich unfriendly

7. It’s ____ phone.
a) a mobile expensive
b) an expensive mobile

8. It’s ____ village.
a) an old lovely
b)a lovely old

Adjectives ~ Part 1


adjectives 1

– An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words.




~ Comes before the noun.
Examples :
a) She’s a beautiful girl: “beautiful” is attribute of “girl”.
b) “We were lying on the hot sand”: “hot” is attribute of “sand”.


~ After a verb and never immediately after the noun.
Examples :
a) Elizabeth is hungry. (hungry)
b) Grapes become shriveled in the sun (shriveled)
c) You seem tired today. (tired)


~ Come immediately after the modified noun.
Examples :
a) something useful
b) everyone present
c) those responsible





vERb : pARt 2


The Present Continuous Tense is used for :
1. Actions which are happening at or around the moment of speaking.
Now I am doing the washing up.
She is working very hard nowadays .

2. Temporary situations.
I am staying with a friend at the moment.

3. Changing or developing situations.
His English is getting better .
It is getting colder .

4. Fixed arrangements in the near future.
They are getting married next week .

1) Actions were in progress at special time in the past
Peter was reading a book yesterday evening.

2) two actions were happening at the same time (the actions do not influence each other)
Anne was writing a letter while Steve was reading the New York Times.

3) together with the Simple Past
While we were sitting at the breakfast table, the telephone rang.

4) repeated actions irritating the speaker (with always, constantly, forever)
Andrew was always coming in late.

Future progressive tense is used to indicate action which will be taking place at some time in the future.
1. I will be watching a football match next Sunday afternoon.
2. We will be working on our project this morning..
3. When you arrive, I’ll be sleeping .
4. I will be leaving in a few minutes.
5. We will be working tomorrow morning.

1. The present perfect is used when the time period has not finished.
I have seen three movies this week.
(This week has not finished yet)

2. The present perfect is often used when the time is not mentioned.
Gerry has failed his exam again.

3. The present perfect is often used when the time is recent.
Ikuko has just arrived in Victoria.

4. The present perfect is often used with for and since.
Greg has lived here for 20 years.
Greg has lived here since 1978.

1. A completed action before another action in the past
The first use of this tense is to emphasize that one action in the past happened before another action in the past.
I had finished my homework before I went playing football.
John had never been to London before we went there last year.

2. Third conditional
Use the Past Perfect with third conditional sentences.
If we had gone by taxi, we wouldn’t have been late.
If Mary had studied harder, she would have passed the exam.

3.Reported speech
Use the Past Perfect with sentences in reported speech.
Mary said she had already seen this film.
He asked if I had read Harry Potter.

4. Dissatisfaction with the Past
We often use the Past Perfect to show our dissatisfaction with the past. Such sentences typically start with “I wish …” or “If only …”.
I wish I had taken more food. I’m hungry now.
If only I had taken more food. I’m hungry now.

1) Completed Action Before Something in the Future
The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future.

a) By next November, I will have received my promotion.
b) By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house.

2) Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs)
With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future.

a) I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.
b) By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.



1.Talks about how long you have been doing something you started in the past and still continue now.

2.Use SINCE with a specific time. Use FOR with a length of time.


Untitled Mary has been studying English since 1992.
Untitled The kids have been running for 15 minutes.
Untitled Karen has been singing all morning.
Untitled The students have been practicing the play since last month.




Use the past perfect continuous to talk about longer actions or situations which started before and continued up to a point in the story.

un She had been studying for hours when she found out the exam was cancelled.
un They had been talking about the details of the party for a couple of hours , so when I asked them whether they wanted a break, they all agreed.



We use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up until a particular event or time in the future. “For five minutes,” “for two weeks,” and “since Friday” are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous.

Untitled They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives.
Untitled She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes.
Untitled James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he leaves for Asia.

Using the Future Perfect Continuous before another action in the future is a good way to show cause and effect.


Untitled Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour.
Untitled Claudia’s English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she is going to have been studying English in the United States for over two years.


VeRb ~ pArT 1

– A verb expresses action or being.

– An action verb tells what the subject of the sentence does.
Ex: Everyone runs when the coach blows her whistle.
I eat dinner at six o’clock.

– A linking verb does not show action, but instead shows state-of-being.
Ex: We were at the store for an hour.
You are in sixth grade.

a) A lexical verb is the main verb of the sentence. All verbs include a lexical verb.

b) A lexical verb does not require an auxiliary verb, but an auxiliary verb exists only to help a lexical verb. It cannot exist alone.

[In the following examples, the auxiliary verb is italicize and the lexical verb is bold.]

~ Every Friday this year, Gloria has taken her dog to obedience training.
{Gloria’s action, TAKEN, is the lexical verb and HAS is auxiliary.}

~ Taking any chance to avoid work, Carton will pretend to be asleep.
{ Carlton’s action, which will occur in the future, is PRETEND. PRETEND is the lexical verb and WILL is the auxiliary verb. Do not be tricked by TAKING. It is not a verb. It is a participle.}

Primary auxiliary verbs are derived from the verbs BE, HAVE, and DO.

Primary auxiliary verbs which are derived from the verb BE are am, is, are, were and was.
-I am a teacher.
-He was very polite.
-She is my friend.
-They are students.

Primary auxiliary verbs which are derived from the verb HAVE are have, had and has.

-They have five houses.
-He has two children.
-She had ten cars.

Primary auxiliary verbs which are derived from the verb DO are do, does and did.

-I do drive the car.
-He did the assignment perfectly.
-He does the examination very well.

We do not use modal verbs alone.

1. A modal verb goes before another verb (except in short answers):

a) You must go b) Leyla can dance c) It might snow

The second verb is always in the infinitive form, without any past tense and without any -ing, -s or -ed ending. We cannot say xhe must workedx, xshe must washingx or xshe must dancesx

2. Modal verbs has no -ing, -s or -ed endings
Unlike other verbs, modal verbs never change their form. We cannot say xyou are musting gox or “Emmet cans dancex

3. Modal verbs have adifferent negative form
We cannot make negatives with don’t, doesn’t or didn’t. To make a negative, put not or n’t after the modal verb:
Waalique must not go (formal) or Waalique musn’t go (informal)
With can, we join not to make one word : cannot

4. Modal verbs have a different question form
We cannot make questions with do, does or did.
To make a question, change the word order:
Azam must go ———-> Must Azam go?
Fida can dance———-> Can Fida dance?

5. Most modal verbs have no past tense
Except for can (past tense could) and will (past tense would), modal verbs do not have a past tense.

We use the present tense:

1. For repeated or regular actions in the present time period.
I take the train to the office.
The train to Berlin leaves every hour.
John sleeps eight hours every night during the week.

2. For facts.
The President of The USA lives in The White House.
A dog has four legs.
We come from Switzerland.

3. For habits.
I get up early every day.
Carol brushes her teeth twice a day.
They travel to their country house every weekend.

4. For things that are always / generally true.
It rains a lot in winter.
The Queen of England lives in Buckingham Palace.
They speak English at work.

The present continuous is used for:

1. actions happening at the moment of speaking:

I’m sitting in front of the computer.
The phone’s ringing.
I’m trying to think of another example to put here.

2. actions happening around the moment of speaking:

I’m learning French (not at this moment, but I’ve got a class tomorrow).
I’m doing a lot of revision for my exams (but not right now).
I’m seeing a lot of my brother at the moment (but he’s not here now).

3. descriptions:

People are sitting on the café terrace.
The traffic is making a lot of noise.
She’s wearing a red dress.

4. temporary situations:

I’m staying with my grandparents while my parents are away.
My brother is using the metro because his car is being repaired.
I’m sleeping in the spare room because I’m decorating my bedroom.

NOUNS ~ Part 2 :)

1. Nouns we can count.
2. Countable nouns can be singular or plural.
3. When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word like a / an / the / my / this with it.
4. When a countable noun is plural, we can use it alone.
5. We can use some / any / a few / many with countable nouns.


Indefinite article a/an with countable nouns:
~ A dog is an animal.

– Singular nouns:
~ I want an orange. (not I want orange.)
~ Where is my bottle? (not Where is bottle?)

– Plural nouns:
~ I like oranges.
~ Bottles can break.

– Some / any / a few / many with countable nouns:
~ I’ve got some dollars.
~ Have you got any pens?
~ I’ve got a few dollars.
~ I haven’t got many pens.

1. Nouns we cannot count. We only use singular verbs with uncountable nouns.
2. Determiners used with these nouns are a lot of, a little, some, plenty, any.


– Have no plural. The verb form is singular and we use some:
~There is some milk on the floor.

– In questions, we can use any or how much:
~ Is there any sugar?
~ How much wine is there?

– A lot of can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns:
~ There are a lot of apples on the trees.
~ There is a lot of snow on the road.

– We use not many with countable nouns and not much with uncountable nouns.
~ There’s a lot of drinks but there isn’t much food.
~ There are a lot of carrots but there aren’t many potatoes.

An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it. The appositive can be a short or long combination of words.


a) The insect, a cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table.

b) During the dinner conversation, Clifford, the messiest eater at the table, spewed mashed potatoes like an eruption volcano.

We use personal pronouns in place of the person or people that we are talking about. My name is Josef but when I am talking about myself I almost always use “I” or “me”, not “Josef”. When I am talking direct to you, I almost always use “you”, not your name. When I am talking about another person, say John, I may start with “John” but then use “he” or “him”. And so on…

1st ~ person or the self (I, me, we)
2nd ~ person or the person spoken to (you)
3rd ~ person or the person spoken about (he, she, him, her, they, them).

An adjective is a word to describe a noun. Sometimes we use a noun to describe another noun. In that case, the first noun “acts as” an adjective.

Rules of nouns as adjectives
The “noun as adjective” will always come first, the second noun is the subject matter.

a) A lighthouse is a beacon.
b) A house light is any lighting unit in the house.

I walked home.
The word home is a noun, but in this application it functions as an adverb that defines where I walked.


This is what we learned today..NOUNS!

NOUNS : The name of a person, place, thing, or idea. Whatever exists, we assume, can be named, and that name is a noun.

PROPER NOUNS : These are names of people, places, schools, universities etc. They are always written with a capital letter, even if they are in the middle of a sentence.

SINGULAR NOUNS : A Singular noun means one item only.

PLURAL NOUNS : The plural form of most nouns is created simply by adding the letter ‘s’ to the end of the word.

But there are some exceptions:-

Nouns that end in -ch, -x, -s, -sh add ‘-es’ to the end of the word.

box – boxes
boss – bosses
bush – bushes
church – churches
gas – gases

Most nouns ending in -o preceded by a consonant also form their plurals by adding ‘-es’ .

potato – potatoes
tomato – tomatoes
volcano – volcanoes

However, many newly created words and words with a Spanish or Italian origin that end in -o just add an ‘s’.

photo – photos | piano – pianos

Nouns that end in a single ‘z’, add ‘-zes’ to the end of the word.

quiz – quizzes

Nouns ending in a consonant + y, drop the y and add ‘-ies’.

party – parties | lady – ladies

Most nouns ending in ‘is’, drop the ‘is’ and add ‘-es’.

crisis – crises | hypothesis – hypotheses | oasis – oases

Most nouns ending in -f or -fe, drop the f and add ‘ves’.

calf – calves | half – halves | wolf – wolves

ABSTRACT NOUNS : These are words used to name non-physical things. These include feelings, states of mind, concepts etc.


CONCRETE NOUN : You can experience this group of nouns with your five senses: you see them, hear them, smell them, taste them, and feel them.

Examples :
a) The highway was blocked by an accident.
b) It was an iceberg that sank the Titanic.
c) He found his grandfather’s journal in the old desk.
d) I skinned my knee when I fell of my bike.
e) We need a lantern for our camping trip.

GENDER NOUNS : There are four types of gender nouns in English.

Masculine gender nouns: words for men, boys, and male animals
Feminine gender nouns : words for women, girls and female animals
Common gender nouns: nouns that are used for both males and females.
Neuter gender nouns: words for things that are not alive.

I’ m a BLOGGER?! =.=’

A Journey Of A Thousand Miles Begins With A Single Step…
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